Main Article Content
Flipped Classroom, Instructional Design, Course Development
The "flipped classroom" has gained in popularity as a new way to structure teaching in which lectures shift from in-class events to digitally-based homework, freeing up class time for practice exercises and discussion. However, critics note such a teaching strategy continues emphasis on the less effective techniques of the lecture as transmission-based knowledge dissemination. They urge rethinking from single instructional tasks to learning environments that promote not just assignment goals but also knowledge application and broader learning outcomes. What do we want students to be able to do? Instructional design is a formal body of theory that has years of testing and evidence for effectiveness that may provide a framework for re-envisioning course design. A 2013 book by M. David Merrill, First Principles of Instruction, attempts to examine the body of instructional design theory for commonalities and develop a set of general principles and processes that can guide the development of such learning environments for instructors. The emphasis is on project-centered learning with a focus on students applying knowledge in ways that "reverse" action from the end of a course to the beginning to implement effective, efficient and engaging (e3) learning. This paper examines some of the key principles and provides an example of e3 implementation from a research methods class.