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Brand Equity, Brand Management
While academic research focuses almost solely on the positive effects of brand equity, numerous instances of the decline and failure of once-strong brands suggest the existence of another category of effects that may offset the positive ones. This paper suggests that an inquiry into the negative effects of brand equity is required to complement and enhance our existing knowledge. Evidence of the decline of strong brands from the literature is presented, and a set of research directions and testable propositions is suggested that should allow quantifying the possible negative effects of brand equity.