International Diversification, Firm Value, Product Strategy, Korean MNCs
Existing studies showed inconsistent results for the relationship between international diversification (ID) and firm value. Thus, we primarily examine whether each MNCs product strategy moderates the relationship between ID and firm value. The results show that MNCs product strategy moderates the relationship between ID and firm value as measured by Tobins Q. Specifically, a positive relationship exists between ID and firm value in the firm group pursuing a cost leadership strategy, whereas a negative relationship exists between the same variables in the firm group pursuing a differentiation strategy, suggesting that the strategic fit between product strategy and ID is likely an important factor in the relationship between ID and firm value. Our results remain robust after conducting sensitivity analyses using the price-to-book value (PBR) ratio and individual components of composite ID measures. Accordingly, we conclude that a cost leadership strategy of Korean MNCs is more likely to have a competitive advantage in a foreign market than a differentiation strategy. This study primarily contributes to the literature on ID in that it provides the first evidence on the relationship between ID and firm value that takes into account an MNCs product strategy using the strategic fit perspective.