Journal of Applied Business Research (JABR) <p><strong>Published since 1985</strong><br>ISSN 0892-7626 (print), ISSN 2157-8834 (online)<br>The Journal of Applied Business Research (JABR) welcomes articles in all areas of applied business and economics research.</p> Clute Institute en-US Journal of Applied Business Research (JABR) 0892-7626 Visual Merchandising Elements: Drivers Of Retail Strategies? <p>Visual merchandising has increasingly become important in retailing especially with more and more customers opting to go online. This study focused on the consumer in order to obtain a better understanding of the visual merchandising elements that impact on visual merchandising in the South African apparel retail industry. The primary research objective was to identify visual merchandising elements from a retailers and consumers perspective in order to drive more focused retail strategies in store design and planning in the apparel market. This research study followed a mixed-methods approach. The value of the research study lies in its contribution to the development of strategic visual merchandising elements that can be used in the retail strategies of apparel retailers. Incorporating visual merchandising elements can improve visual merchandising proficiency and thus have greater impact on store design and layout, as well as when designing and planning new stores.</p> Michael Colin Cant Johannes Arnoldes Wiid Copyright (c) 2020 2020-10-01 2020-10-01 36 5 197 204 Relational Leadership Within Business Partnerships In India: A Process Framework <p>Inter-organizational partnerships are an essential mechanism for corporations to access resources, particularly in emerging markets. This study is concerned with the steps relating to how multinational corporations in India create, develop, and evaluate their partnerships based on relationships. In the context of business-to-business partnerships, the researchers aim to (i) create a relational leadership process framework for how these relationships are built, and (ii) analyze if relational governance through relational leadership is complementary or rather a substitute to formal contracts in the context of such business-to-business partnerships. A case study-based research design is employed to explore relational leadership in business partnerships in India, thereby incorporating case studies based on interviews from nine internationally operating corporations. A process framework for relational leadership with six distinct steps on how to develop business partnerships in India was developed. Furthermore, the researchers found that the framework complements the relational governance processes supported by relational leadership and formal contracts when engaging in business partnerships in India. The study’s main aim was to contribute to the current theory in the emergent field of relational leadership. Practitioners responsible for partnership building among corporations can gain insights from the framework into the application of relational leadership. The results indicate that corporations can maintain long-term partnerships if specific relational governance mechanisms mainly supported by the application of relational leadership are in place.</p> Dominik Fischer Preeti Singh Copyright (c) 2020 2020-10-01 2020-10-01 36 5 205 228 Type Of Board And Sustainability Reporting <p>The research examined the relationship between BODT (board of director type) and CSR (corporate sustainability reporting), annual report disclosure and performance by using a sampling of companies listed on the S&amp;P 500 for 2015. The data came from annual reports filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission and the Global Reporting Initiative. The study considered the relationship between BODT with emphasis on CEO (Chief Executive officer)-only and non-CEO-only boards and corporate sustainability reporting. Past research has found the CEO-only board relates to lower corporate performance and has seen significant use since the advent of the Sarbanes-Oxley Law that required boards that are more independent. The CEO-only board is an elaboration of an independent board or directors, whose only management member of the board is the CEO. The study used CEO-duality, another powerful influencer of boards, as a theoretical proxy for the CEO-only board. Regulators and investors are demanding higher level CSR reporting and information; therefore, the findings are of interest to both companies considering board of director type and regulators and investors. The quantitative categorical research study found a significant relationship between CEO-only boards and higher levels of disclosure and reporting. No significant relationship between CEO-only board and greater ROA was found. A possible reason for the differences in outcomes between the past research regarding independent boards that did not consider the CEO-only member and CSR reporting and the research presented in this study was the role of the lead independent director as a member of the CEO-only board not considered in this study.</p> Debra Stone Copyright (c) 2020 2020-10-01 2020-10-01 36 5 229 240