The Effect Of Plus/Minus Grading On The GPA

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Yonah Wilamowsky
Bernard H. Dickman
Sheldon Epstein


Grading Systems, Grade Inflation


In recent years, an increasing number of colleges and universities have been turning away from traditional letter grading systems that limit student grades to A, B, C, D, and F based on the presumption that grading systems with more flexibility are advantageous to both teachers and students. However, as with any rating system, before opting for a new grading system it is important to recognize that modifications may result in some, possibly unintended, consequences as well.  In this paper, we discuss theoretical effects that including plus and/or minus grades may have on Grade Point Average (GPA) and analyze data from a School that implemented such a change.


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