Main Article Content
DI, Direct Instruction
This study was aimed at investigating the effect of the direct instruction model on intermediate class achievement and attitudes toward English grammar. It was an experimental study and the purpose was to explore the relative effectiveness of instructional methodology (independent variable) on students’ achievement and attitude (dependent variables). This study is based on Slavin’s (1987) components of Direct Instruction. Direct Instruction (DI) refers to academically focused, teacher-directed classroom instruction using sequenced and structured materials. It refers to teaching activities where goals are clear to students, time allocated for instruction is sufficient and continuous, and feedback to students is immediate and academically oriented. On the other hand, in traditional lessons, the instructor verbalizes information to passive note-taking by students. The instructor thinks that students have empty minds which are to be filled with knowledge. Students are expected to record and absorb knowledge (Slavin, 1994). In Pakistan, this approach is still unfamiliar to practitioners and researchers in education, including teachers of English language at the intermediate level. The main objectives of the study were: 1) to measure the achievement of the experimental and control groups after providing treatment of direct instruction to the experimental group, 2) to measure the attitude of the experimental and control groups after providing treatment of direct instruction to the experimental group, 3) to compare the achievement of the experimental group with the control group after experiment and to compare the high achievers and low achievers of the experimental and control group, 4) to compare the attitude of the experimental and control groups toward English grammar after providing treatment of direct instruction, and 5) to compare the effect of direct instruction on the retention of students in English grammar. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, null hypotheses were formulated and tested. The sample of the study comprised of 52 first year students who were matched on their ability in English grammar and placed into an experimental group or control group on the basis of specially-designed pre-tests. The study was conducted in Cantt College for Women Wah Cantt. A valid and reliable pre-test and post-test in English grammar were developed to measure the achievement of students in English grammar. An attitude scale was developed to measure the attitude of the students toward English grammar, and it was administered before and after the treatment. The experimental group was taught through direct instruction and the control group was taught, as usual, through the traditional approach for a period of three months. Chi-square and t-tests were applied to test the null hypotheses, and .05 was selected as the level of significance. The results of Direct Instruction Model were consistently better than those of traditional instruction, both in terms of achievement and attitude. After an interval of six weeks, the students taught through DI also showed better retention.