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foreign language, face-to-face, language lab, online, class performance
Action research was conducted for two consecutive semesters comparing beginning level Spanish courses taught in the traditional classroom and the same class taught exclusively in the language lab. A subsequent semester compared an intermediate class taught in the traditional classroom compared to the same class conducted online. Assessment scores were compared for quizzes, tests, oral interview and final exam. Overall course GPA and student opinions were also compared. Identical treatments showed the classroom performed significantly better than the lab class yet the following semester showed the lab performing better but not at a significant level. A second study compared a higher level of students for classroom vs. online. This study showed the classroom performance was better in three out of four assessments, however this difference was not significant.