Consumer Purchase Motives And Product Perceptions: A Hard Laddering Study Of Smoking Habits Of Poles

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Eugene Kaciak
Carman W. Cullen



The objective of the study is to apply the Means-End Theory to the analysis of smoking habits of Poles, based on a quota sample of 418 smokers in Krakow. The Means-End Theory posits that consumers learn to associate attributes (A) of products with particular consequences (C), and that these consequences are important because they accord with personal values (V) held by the individual. Each chain of associations A-->C-->V depicts the consumers personal motivations with respect to a given product. The paper-and-pencil assisted approach (which is called hard laddering, as opposed to soft, conventional tape-recorded interviews) is used to uncover links between personal values and the smokers choices. The results are then transposed into a meaningful market segmentation strategy.


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