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This paper studies the financial characteristics of firms that are listed on the Athens Stock Exchange. The primary focus of the study is to capture the financial attributes of firms that display positive and negative stock returns, and firms that display low and high standard deviation in their stock returns. The study also examines the behaviour of firms that belong to ATHEX as well as other market indices, such as FTSE 20, FTSE International, etc. The study categorises listed firms based on size, growth, profitability, liquidity and leverage, and assesses their financial behaviour and performance. Firms with high profitability and growth, liquidity and dividend payout tend to attract investors’ interest and display positive stock returns. Firms with unfavourable financial figures and uncertainty appear to exhibit significant volatility in their stock returns. Firms that are politically and financially visible, either due to size or because they belong to a market index, tend to carefully organise their actions and meet financial analysts’ forecasts. Firms distribute high dividends and pay their creditors timely in order to attract investors, satisfy creditors and favourably affect stock market participants. Overall, firms structure their decision-making so as to improve their financial profile and performance, and influence the picture that the stock market has about their managerial abilities and future prospects.